Download Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics: Basic Research for by National Research Council, Division on Engineering and PDF

By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Committee on Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics

This publication identifies possibilities, priorities, and demanding situations for the sphere of condensed-matter and fabrics physics. It highlights intriguing fresh clinical and technological advancements and their societal impression and identifies awesome questions for destiny examine. issues variety from the technological know-how of contemporary know-how to new fabrics and constructions, novel quantum phenomena, nonequilibrium physics, gentle condensed subject, and new experimental and computational tools.

The publication additionally addresses structural demanding situations for the sphere, together with nurturing its highbrow power, conserving a fit mix of huge and small study amenities, bettering the field's integration with different disciplines, and constructing new methods for scientists in academia, executive laboratories, and to interact. it is going to be of curiosity to scientists, educators, scholars, and policymakers.

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Extra resources for Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics: Basic Research for Tomorrow's Technology

Example text

These facilities have not kept pace with developments in Europe, and in the last decade, leadership decisively passed to the Institute Laue-Langeven reactor facility in France and the ISIS pulsed facility in the United Kingdom. Among the recent successes of neutron scattering has been the demonstration that the high-Tc superconductors have a common feature—nearly square planar arrays of copper and oxygen atoms. Neutron scattering also was used to image vortex lattices in high-Tc superconductors.

That is, the lower, hotter layers of fluid begin to rise in plumes to the top. The hot plumes hit the top of the fluid, cool, and then sink back. If the fluid is spread out (like gravy in a sauce pan, for example), convection cells may appear and arrange themselves over the surface of the liquid in a regular pattern of squares or hexagons. This phenomenon is commonly seen in the kitchen. Theoretically, the behavior of such a fluid is completely described by a set of well-known equations (named after Navier and Stokes) derived directly from Newton’s laws of motion.

Inelastic x-ray scattering has provided unique information about the dynamics of fluids and glasses. Photoemission experiments have provided much information about the electronic structure of solids, which is essential to understanding the physical details of the operation of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. X-ray studies of disordered systems have given insight into inorganic glasses and biological structures. Information can be obtained about chemical states and 22 CONDENSED-MATTER AND MATERIALS PHYSICS environments of individual atoms in the structure of disordered systems.

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