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By Ann Dale, John T. Pierce

During this paintings, representatives from 3 teams supply precise discussions of key strategies and ideas in sustainable neighborhood improvement in Canada. The individuals contain Chris Bryant, Jill Dickinson, Thom Meredith, Maureen Reed, Mark Roseland and Robert Woollard.

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It turns out that most high-income nations run an ecological deficit about an order of magnitude larger than the sustainable natural income generated by the ecologically Social Evolution and Urban Systems productive land within their political territories (Rees 1996; Wackernagel and Rees 1995). For example, Japan and the Netherlands boast positive trade and current account balances measured in monetary terms, and their populations are among the most prosperous on Earth. Densely populated yet relatively resource (natural capital) poor, these countries are regarded as stellar economic successes and held up as models for emulation by the developing world.

This approach can be justified on the basis that the term "sustainability," as it applies to human activities (with their attendant policies), must at minimum consider the persistence of humanity over time and humanity's adaptation to changing circumstances. Any approach to the study of complex adaptive systems must be prepared to put forth concepts that frame the principal issues of the system under discussion. In this chapter, we seek to articulate the foundations of sustainability, identify specific patterns of action, and outline some of the policy directions that might reasonably derive therefrom.

Our analysis of the Lower Mainland of British Columbia aligns us with Hardin. Using a new method to assess human resource requirements, we show that the population of any urban region (and even of whole countries) vastly exceeds the long-term carrying capacity of the geographic territory that it occupies. By extrapolation, it seems that the wealthy quarter 31 32 Robert Woollard and William Rees of the world's population has already appropriated the entire long-term productive capacity of the Earth.

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