By C. J. Randall
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Why did the Ottoman Empire input the 1st international conflict in overdue October 1914, months after the war's devastations had turn into transparent? have been its leaders 'simple-minded,' 'below-average' members, because the doyen of Turkish diplomatic historical past has argued? Or, as others have claimed, did the Ottomans input the conflict simply because warfare Minister Enver Pasha, dictating Ottoman judgements, used to be in thrall to the Germans and to his personal expansionist goals?
Winning Turkey looking is predicated on 5 years of columns written for the guides of the nationwide Wild Turkey Federation, with a couple of tales from different courses tossed within the combine. Authors John Higley and J. J. Reich have multiplied and up to date the articles to slot the layout of this ebook. integrated are such topics as what drives turkey habit, the significance of calling, how a person can learn how to name, and the half woodsmanship performs.
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The reUgious factor, aUhough important, therefore does not seem to be decisive by itself in the political aUiances and oppositions (cf. Bruinessen 1981). Beside orthodox Shiite and Sunni Islam, we find in various parts of Kurdistan the adherents of heterodox, syncretistic sects, in which traces of older Iranian and Semitic religions, extremist Shiism (ghulat) and heterodox Sufism may be detected. ^^ The largest group is that of the Alevis, in northwestern Kurdistan. ^^ It has often been noted that most of the Kurdish Alevis speak Zaza dialects.
After the war Iraq and Syria were created as British- and French-mandated territories; many surviving Christians (especiaUy from the Tor Abdin and central Kurdistan) fled there. The British and French authorities further exacerbated tensions between these Christians and the Kurds by recruiting poUce forces from the former to keep the latter in check. Many of the Armenians who survived the massacres went to the southern Caucasus, where they assisted in the establishment of an Armenian republic. Others still Uve in Syria or Iraq, where they or their parents had been sent by the Turks during the war.
The trend seemed to be towards the political integration of the Kurds into their respective states and towards class rather than ethnic confrontation. The 1960s, however, showed a re-emergence of Kurdish nationaUsm, at first in Iraqi Kurdistan and later also in the Persian and Turkish parts of Kurdistan. Iraqi Kurdistan, 1958-78 On 14 July 1958, a mUitary coup, led by Abdelkarim Qassem, overthrew the Iraqi monarchy and the pro- Western government of Prime Minister Nuri Sa'id (who was, incidentaUy, a Kurd).