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By Kees Van Dijk

Contemporary years have proven a rise in curiosity within the learn of cleanliness from a historic and sociological viewpoint. a lot of such stories on bathing and washing, on holding the physique and the streets fresh, and on grime and the wrestle of dust, specialise in Europe. In Cleanliness and tradition awareness shifts to the tropics, to Indonesia, in colonial occasions in addition to within the current. matters diversity from using cleaning soap and the showering of garments as a pretext to say superiority of race and sophistication to how references to being fresh performed a task in a crusade opposed to ecu homosexuals within the Netherlands Indies on the finish of the Thirties. different issues are eerie pores and skin illnesses and the sanitary measures to put off them, and the way misconceptions approximately loss of hygiene because the reason behind ailment hampered the discovering of a remedy. realization can also be attracted to alterations in angle in the direction of acting own physique services outdoor and chickening out to the privateness of the rest room, to standard bathing ritual and to the trendy tropical Spa tradition as a manifestation of a brand new Asian way of life. With contributions by way of Bart Barendregt, Marieke Bloembergen, Kees van Dijk, Mary Somers Heidhues, David Henley, George Quinn, and Jean Gelman Taylor.

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Attire should be cheap and plain. Wesley speaks about neatness of apparel, but may have meant this in the sense of being without adornments. 23 | Kees van Dijk must be counted among those explorers, travellers, and missionaries about whom the first question which enters one’s mind is: why did they do it? He wrote that a death sentence was preferable to residence in the Middle East (Oren 2007:240). By World War Two the American outlook did not seem to have changed much. General Dwight D. Eisenhower liked Algiers, it was a ‘beautiful and picturesque’ city, but he did complain about the Arabs who seemed ‘to have very little regard for personal cleanliness’ (Oren 2007:464).

London: Abacus. Perrot, Philippe 1987 Werken aan de schijn; Veranderingen van het vrouwelijk lichaam in de achttiende en negentiende eeuw. Nijmegen: SUN. [Originally published as Le travail des apparences, ou les transformations du corps féminin XVIIIe-XIXe siècle. ] Platt, Kate 1923 The home and health in India and the tropical colonies. London: Baillière, Tindall and Cox. Prabasmoro, Aquarini 2004 Becoming white; Representasi ras, kelas, feminitas dan globalitas dalam iklan sabun. Kata pengantar oleh Safrina Noorman.

From this evidence Schama argues that cleanliness was associated, in the minds of Dutch people, with pride and shame. A shared understanding of cleanliness fostered a sense of group solidarity. To be clean was to be patriotic, to defend hearth and homeland from dirty, unwanted invaders, whether vermin or aliens (Schama 1987:376-80). Dutch paintings reinforced this message that dirt and moral failing go together. 1 Schama focuses on the cleaning of objects such as cooking pots and passageways. He has nothing to say of cleaning bodies, but clearly there were rules for personal hygiene too.

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