By Harold M. Tanner
Now on hand in volumes, this obtainable, but rigorous, advent to the political, social, and cultural background of China offers a balanced and considerate account of the improvement of chinese language civilization from its beginnings to the current day. quantity covers from the nice Qing Empire throughout the People's Republic of China (1644-2009).
The e-book presents a accomplished view of chinese language tradition, together with advancements in literature and the humanities. A beneficiant number of illustrations allows comprehension of and delight within the visible arts.
Each quantity comprises abundant illustrations, a whole supplement of maps, a chronological desk, huge notes, innovations for extra examining and an index.
Read or Download China: A History, Volume 2: From the Great Qing Empire through The People's Republic of China 1644-2009 PDF
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Additional resources for China: A History, Volume 2: From the Great Qing Empire through The People's Republic of China 1644-2009
His son and successor, Huang Taiji, built on this foundation. Huang Taiji forced more Mongol tribes to submit, took the rest of the territory west of the Liao River from the Ming, and launched raids across the Great Wall, deep into Ming territory, in order to support his growing army. Huang Taiji also moved farther away from the collegial Jurchen style of leadership and toward a more centralized, Chinese-style bureaucratic system. Huang Taiji ordered that key Chinese texts, including the Analects and histories of the Warring States and Three Kingdoms periods, be translated into Manchu so that he could read them.
Nonetheless, intensive interaction with Central Asia and India continued in the Sui and its successor, the Tang dynasty (618–907). The Tang is often regarded as the most glorious period of the Chinese past, famous for its poets, artists, and calligraphers. A confident Tang government staffed by highly-educated aristocratic men harnessed the productive agriculture of the Central Plains and, increasingly, the rice-producing Yangzi valley, built one of the most powerful armies of its time, and expanded the empire into northern Vietnam, parts of the Korean peninsula, and deep into Central Asia.
Or go north to Beijing? The southern option would cut the Grand Canal and leave the Ming court to face a twofront war against the Manchu and Li Zicheng’s Shun without the tax revenue of Jiangnan. An advance to the north would bring a swift end to the Ming dynasty, but it would leave Li Zicheng to face the Manchu army. Li Zicheng chose to strike north toward Beijing. The Ming Chongzhen emperor’s advisors, torn between competing factions, offered conflicting advice: stay in Beijing and defend the capital, or flee to Nanjing and resist the Shun “bandits” from there?