By Roger J.B. King, Mike W. Robins
Offers a transparent, concise and authoritative advent to the organic ideas that underlie the reasons and therapy of melanoma.
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Additional info for Cancer Biology (3rd Edition)
4). In the context of tumour pathogenesis, this indicates that single gene changes can inefficiently generate cancers and that cell-specific influences exist that determine which cells can be transformed into cancers. The myc gene had a similar effect to that of ras, but together the two were synergistic. This cooperation between oncogenes fits well with multistage models of carcinogenesis. The third oncogene, neu, generated breast cancers in all the female offspring. This example illustrates the multiple ways in which a cancer type can be generated.
And Vogelstein, B. (1997) Cancer-susceptibility genes: gatekeepers and caretakers. Nature 386, 761–762. R. and Folkman, J. (1991) Tumour angiogenesis and metastasis: correlation in invasive breast carcinoma. N Engl J Med 324, 1–8. 31 .. qxd 3/04/2006 08:39 Page 32 3 KEY POINTS Pathology: defining a neoplasm ● Tissue and cell architecture are used to decide whether a growth is malignant. ● Pathology can distinguish between benign and malignant growths. ● Pathology defines the type of cancer. ● Pathology helps to determine prognosis and treatment.
5). The chromosome translocation resulting in increased 30 .. qxd 3/04/2006 08:37 Page 31 Further reading tyrosine kinase activity is a crucial event, as transfection of the abl cDNA into normal cells generates leukaemias. This is probably not equivalent to initiation because although the protein product of the translocation has the properties of an initiating agent as defined in experimental models, it begs the question of what causes the translocation. Whatever causes the chromosome change would have a better claim to be the initiator.