Download BRE building elements: foundations, basements and external by H.W. Harrison PDF

By H.W. Harrison

Offers development execs with useful information about these elements of constructions in direct touch with the floor, together with foundations and basements, including exterior works.

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However, in the north the surface clays are generally sandy and their potential shrinkage is therefore smaller. In addition to the firm clays, there are soft, alluvial clays found in and around estuaries, lakes and river courses. Examples of these locations are the Fens, the Somerset levels, the Kent and Essex marshes alongside the Thames, and the clays of Firths of Forth and Clyde. These clay soils have a crust of firm clay that has been strengthened by over-consolidation brought about by successive seasons of wetting and drying over previous millennia.

BRE investigators monitored the movements of this block by installing precise levelling and tape extensometer stations on the building. An electrolevel inclinometer was installed on one of the internal walls of the unoccupied building and a borehole inclinometer in its garden. The history of the site was compiled covering the period 1949 to 1973. It was concluded that the properties had been affected by at least two periods of shrinking and swelling of the clay underlying the foundations, and more specifically related to growth and felling of adjacent trees.

6). Remains of old buildings have been a source of difficulty over the ages. When, for example, Sir Christopher Wren first became involved in the rebuilding of St Paul’s, it was said that one of his first tasks was to investigate the old foundations which criss-crossed the site(17). Lincoln Cathedral was said to have been built over Roman remains, and even parish churches in relatively rural areas requiring domestic scale extensions to their facilities, such as that at Mancetter, Warwickshire, in 1995, will require to be archaeologically rescued either before or during the progress of building works.

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