By Roland Glaser (auth.)
Biophysics is the technological know-how of actual ideas underlying all methods of existence, together with the dynamics and kinetics of organic systems.
This totally revised 2nd English variation is an introductory textual content that spans all steps of organic association, from the molecular, to the organism point, in addition to affects of environmental elements. in keeping with the big development lately made, particularly in theoretical and molecular biophysics, the writer has up-to-date the textual content, integrating new effects and advancements referring to protein folding and dynamics, molecular facets of membrane meeting and shipping, noise-enhanced approaches, and photo-biophysics. The advances made in theoretical biology within the final decade demand a completely new notion of the corresponding sections. hence, the booklet presents the heritage wanted for primary education in biophysics and, additionally, deals loads of complex biophysical knowledge.
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Additional info for Biophysics: An Introduction
Such processes are also referred to as self-assembly. More specific aspects relating to the formation of equilibrium and nonequilibrium structures will be given in subsequent chapters of this textbook. Further Reading Eigen 1971, 1992; Meinhardt 2008, 2009; Kauffman 1993; Strait and Dewey 1996. 4 Distribution of Molecular Energy and Velocity at Equilibrium The Boltzmann equation of entropy (Eq. 4) as derived in Sect. 1, helps to illustrate the second law of thermodynamics, according to which, isolated systems spontaneously approach a state of maximum entropy.
Further Reading Shannon and Weaver 1962; Bioinformatics in molecular biology: Kauffman 1993; Strait and Dewey 1996; Yockey 2005; Lesk 2002; Maxwell’s demon: Leff and Rex 1990. 3 Biological Structures: General Aspects In the previous section we introduced expressions like order, structure, and organization and discussed them in context with entropy and information, as well as with the statements of the second law of thermodynamics. This touches on a set of questions which are of central interest in biophysics and which will be mentioned in many sections of this textbook.
Therefore, the characteristic length of the segment of a DNA molecule as a strong polyelectrolyte is l ¼ 90 nm. 30 2 Molecular Structure of Biological Systems Fig. 11 The molecular mechanism of rubber or entropy elasticity. If the distance of the two points of fixation increases, the entropy content of the molecule decreases (schematically illustrated in the elongation of the chain in the lower part of the figure). A force is generated with the tendency to recover the previous situation (the state of maximal entropy) (According to data from G.