Download Auger- and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Materials by Siegfried Hofmann PDF

By Siegfried Hofmann

To someone who's attracted to floor chemical research of fabrics at the nanometer scale, this publication is ready to provide acceptable info. in keeping with commonplace program examples in fabrics technological know-how, a concise method of all features of quantitative research of surfaces and skinny movies with AES and XPS is supplied. ranging from simple rules that are step-by-step constructed into virtually invaluable equations, huge counsel is given to graduate scholars in addition to to skilled researchers. Key chapters are these on quantitative floor research and on quantitative intensity profiling, together with contemporary advancements in subject matters equivalent to floor excitation parameter and backscattering correction issue. simple kin are derived for emission and excitation attitude dependencies within the research of bulk fabric and of fractional nano-layer buildings, and for either gentle and tough surfaces. it really is proven how you can optimize the analytical process, signal-to-noise ratio, sure bet and detection restrict. labored examples for quantification of alloys and of layer constructions in sensible situations (e.g. illness, evaporation, segregation and oxidation) are used to seriously overview assorted methods to quantification with admire to commonplace matrix correction components and matrix relative sensitivity components. cutting-edge concerns in quantitative, harmful and non-destructive intensity profiling are mentioned with emphasis on sputter intensity profiling and on attitude resolved XPS and AES. making an allowance for preferential sputtering and electron backscattering corrections, an creation to the mixing-roughness-information intensity (MRI) version and its extensions is gifted.

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Additional info for Auger- and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Materials Science: A User-Oriented Guide

Sample text

Therefore, ion pumps or turbomolecular pumps are most frequently used. To control the residual gas composition, a quadrupole mass analyzer is indispensable. An ion gun (see Sect. 4) with suitable gas inlet device for surface cleaning and depth profiling (see Sect. 1) is generally attached to the system. A typical UHV system for surface analysis consists of the main chamber with the sample stage, electron gun or X-ray source, ion gun (see Fig. 2), and other auxiliary equipment, that is directly connected to the ion or turbomolecular pumping unit (see Fig.

During this baking of the system, the desorption and diffusion rates are increased, and the desorbed gas is pumped away. Desorption sites are depleted, and, after return to room temperature, the outgassing rate has dropped to a value ensuring the attainment of UHV, as schematically shown in Fig. 2]. 1]. Often, the volume of a chamber is of less importance for the outgassing rate than the total area of particular components contained in the chamber. The different sources of residual gas in the vacuum chamber can be distinguished by the time dependence of gas release and subsequent pumping.

19]. 23]. Optimum spot size is achieved by respective focusing lenses settings. , with a small externally operated diaphragm in the beam) the sharpness of the secondary image of a sample while zooming in a certain object is a useful measure of the attainment of a small beam 10 Fig. 9 High-resolution AES: electron beam diameter as a function of the beam current for a LaB6 cathode (blue lines, 3 and 10 kV beam voltage, PE SAM 600) and for a W thermal field emitter cathode (red lines, 10 and 20 kV beam voltage, PE SAM 670) (After Ref.

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