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Extra resources for Assessment of Planetary Prot. Rqmts. for Spacecraft Missions to Icy Solar Syst. Bodies - NRC

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R. Pace, A molecular view of microbial diversity and the biosphere. Science 276(5313):734740, 1997. 4. L. G. A. M. R. M. J. Herndl, Microbial diversity in the deep sea and the under-explored “rare” biosphere, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103(32):12115-12120, 2006. 5. A. M. G. M. R. A. L. Sogin. Microbial population structures in the deep marine biosphere, Science 318:97-100, 2007. 6. V. Kunin, A. Engelbrektson, H. Ochman, and P. Hugenholtz, Wrinkles in the rare biosphere: Pyrosequencing errors lead to artificial inflation of diversity estimates, Environmental Microbiology 12: 118-123, 2009.

Reservoirs of liquid water within icy bodies always remain in contact with ice, and thus the temperatures within these liquids hover near the freezing point of pure water (which is a minimum of −20°C at a depth of ~100 km in a large icy body) or mixed ice+salts or ice+ammonia (plausibly as low as −97°C). A source of energy within an ice shell will generally melt the surrounding ice while maintaining the liquid body at the freezing point. In a subsurface ocean overlain by a floating ice shell, the tendency of warm liquid to rise and cool liquid to sink will pin the entire ocean temperature near the freezing point.

Sogin. Microbial population structures in the deep marine biosphere, Science 318:97-100, 2007. 6. V. Kunin, A. Engelbrektson, H. Ochman, and P. Hugenholtz, Wrinkles in the rare biosphere: Pyrosequencing errors lead to artificial inflation of diversity estimates, Environmental Microbiology 12: 118-123, 2009. 7. COSPAR, “COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy (20 October 2002; As Amended to 24 March 2011),” COSPAR, Paris, p. pdf. 8. National Research Council, Evaluating the Biological Potential in Samples Returned from Planetary satellites and Small Solar System Bodies: Framework for Decision Making, National Academy Press, 1998.

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