By Zeynep Yürekli
According to an intensive exam of constructions, inscriptions, archival files and hagiographies, this publication uncovers the political importance of Bektashi shrines within the Ottoman imperial age. It therefore presents a clean and finished account of the formative strategy of the Bektashi order, which began as a community of social teams that took factor with Ottoman imperial guidelines within the past due 15th century, was once recommended imperially as a part of Bayezid II's (r. 1481-1512) delicate strength coverage, and saved lower than payment by way of imperial specialists because the Ottoman method of the Safavid clash hardened in the course of the remainder of the 16th century. This ebook demonstrates that it was once a mixture of 2 collective actions that validated the first parameters of Bektashi tradition from the past due 15th century onwards. One was once the writing of Bektashi hagiographies; they associated hitherto specified social teams (such as wandering dervishes and warriors) with one another during the lives of historic figures who have been their identification markers (such because the saint Hac Bektas and the martyr Seyyid Gazi), whereas incorporating them into Ottoman background in inventive methods. the opposite one was once the architectural remodelling of the saints' shrines. by way of sort, imagery and content material, this interrelated literary and architectural output finds a classy strategy of negotiation with the imperial order and its cultural paradigms. tested in additional element within the publication are the shrines of Seyyid Gazi and Hac Bektas and linked legends and hagiographies. even though validated as self reliant associations in medieval Anatolia, they have been joined within the rising Bektashi community lower than the Ottomans, turned its imperative centres and underwent radical architectural transformation, quite often less than the patronage of raider commanders established within the Balkans. They hence got here to occupy an middleman socio-political quarter among the Ottoman empire and its contestants within the 16th century.
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Extra info for Architecture and Hagiography in the Ottoman Empire: The Politics of Bektashi Shrines in the Classical Age
This created an Ottoman counterweight to the shrines of Seyyid Gazi and Hacı Bektaş. Not surprisingly, the architectural patronage of Bektashi shrines, which represented the unorthodox subjects of the empire, did not come from the ruling elite in the capital. It was the patronage of raider commanders from the distant frontiers that transformed the two shrines examined here. However different they might appear from each other in terms of architectural style, their roughly simultaneous transformation in the imperial age was no coincidence.
13 Safavid missionaries now openly encouraged anti-Ottoman uprisings among the Shiʿite population in Anatolia. 14 It is in this context that, as will be detailed below, Bayezid II appointed new leaders to the shrines of Seyyid Gazi and Hacı Bektaş, which had a sizeable constituency among Anatolian peasants and nomads. Bayezid’s ‘soft power’ policy proved to be unsuccessful when a pro-Safavid rebellion arose in Anatolia during the power vacuum which was caused by a war of succession between the Ottoman princes in 1511.
260–68). Another exception is the treatment of the Timurid shrine of Ahmed Yesevi in Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom, The Art and Architecture of Islam 1250–1800 (New Haven and London, 1995), pp. 41–4. 38 Lisa Golombek, ‘The Cult of Saints and Shrine Architecture in the Fourteenth Century’, in Dickran K. ), Near Eastern Numismatics, Iconography, Epigraphy, and History: Studies in Honor of George C. Miles (Beirut, 1974), pp. 419–30. 39 Caroline Williams, ‘The Cult of ʿAlid Saints in the Fatimid Monuments of Cairo, Part II: The Mausolea’, Muqarnas, 3 (1985): pp.