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Recent breakthroughs made with two important viral vaccines—rabies vaccine and foot-and-mouth disease vaccine—are used in this chapter to illustrate the present fast-moving state of development of genetic engineer- 20 F. Α. Murphy et al. ing technology. Parallel research on adjuvants and vaccine delivery systems does not seem to be keeping up. Perhaps the latter is dampened by the conservative position which must be taken with regard to the use of adjuvants with human vaccines. However, questions appropriate in human medicine, such as adjuvant exacerbation of immunopathologic diseases, are not as important in short-lived livestock species.

In contrast, six of the C-specific antibodies reacted with denatured proteins, five with VP1, and one with VP3. These determinants are therefore likely to be specified simply by amino acid sequence rather than by tertiary confirmation of the protein. The six antibodies found positive in immunoblot tests with poliovirus 3 were also examined in tests with poliovirus 1 and 2 capsid proteins; the results are shown in Table IV. Monoclonal antibodies NIBp 196 and 203 reacted with VP1 of poliovirus types 2 and 3 whereas NIBp 118, NIBy 252-11, and NIBy 25-4-4 reacted only with VP1 of the homotypic virus.

Emini, Ε. , Shaw-Yi, Kao, Lewis, A. , and Wimmer, E. (1983). J. Virol. 46, 466. Evans, D. Μ. , Minor, P. , Schild, G. C , and Almond, J. W. (1983). Nature (London) 304, 459. , Qi, Yi-Hua, Minor, P. , Magrath, D. , and Schild, G. C. (1982). Lancet 2, 122-124. , Minor, P. , Magrath, D. , and Schild, G. C. (1984). J. Gen. Virol. 65, 197. Kleid, D. , Moore, D. , Grubman, M. , McKercher, P. , Morgan, D. , Robertson, B. , and Bachrach, H. L. (1981). Science 214, 1125. Laemmli, U. K. (1970). Nature (London) 227, 680.

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