By Ted Wragg
This up to date and revised moment variation now comprises insurance of the hot instructor appraisal and college inspection systems. utilizing a mix of case stories, pictures and illustrations, foreign schooling professional Ted Wragg indicates how quite a few humans examine classes for various reasons and in numerous contexts. He provides examples of winning tools which were hired through lecturers, scholar academics, researchers and students.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Classroom Observation
One way of doing this economically is to draw a line across the page representing the length of time spent on the aspect of the lesson being studied, using graph paper if necessary. An observer might, for example, be watching a foreign language lesson, and wish to know whether the teacher was talking, or a pupil, or no one, in which case the time line might look like this: Target pupils If observers wish to study individual pupils using a quantitative approach, whether this is in the form of time lines or other forms of record, it is often difficult to tag the movements or contributions of thirty different individuals who may, during a day, be engaged in hundreds of interactions with their teachers or fellow pupils.
A stopwatch, the second hand of a wristwatch, or even a specially designed pocket timer which gives a bleep to an earpiece, can be used to remind the observer to record a category every three seconds. Let us take a simple exchange which will show how the system works in practice: Teacher: Look at the list of cities on the blackboard. Which do you think is the one nearest here? (three second pause) Pupil: It’s either Bristol or Birmingham. Categor y tallied 6 (command) 4 (question) 10 (silence) 8 (solicited pupil talk) The sequence recorded on the data sheet could, therefore, be 6–4–10–8.
Some ratings focused more on manifest classroom traits, rather than individual personality features, and dimensions such as ‘well preparedbadly prepared’ were commonplace. Mostly the features of a rating schedule were 22 T H E U S E O F Q U A N T I TAT I V E M E T H O D S based on commonsense assumptions, rather than the results of research, though Ryans (1960), in a substantial evaluation of teachers’ characteristics, used traits that appeared to be related to ‘success’ in the classroom, like the ones below: warm stimulating businesslike 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 aloof dull slipshod 7 7 7 This approach was criticised for a number of reasons, some self-evident, others more technical.