By Harikesh Bahadur Singh, Birinchi Kumar Sarma, Chetan Keswani
The major concentration of this e-book is to survey the present prestige of analysis, improvement and use of agriculturally very important microorganisms in Asian international locations and boost a method for addressing severe concerns quite a few coverage constraints because of which bio-pesticides have chanced on restricted purposes.
during this ebook the editors have attempted to improve a consensus on problems with comparable to caliber standards, quality controls, regulatory administration, commercialization and advertising of agriculturally vital microorganisms in Asian nations. a majority of these matters are mentioned at nationwide point by means of efficient gurus of Asian international locations together with India, China, Malaysia, Iran, Taiwan, Israel, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Philippines.
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Extra info for Agriculturally Important Microorganisms: Commercialization and Regulatory Requirements in Asia
So far, the most common solutions to this problem of extending survival time have been to (1) reduce moisture in the formulation and produce dry formulation by drying in either a fluidized bed, air-drying, or freeze-drying. These processes reduce water content in the final product or (2) store under refrigeration. In completely dry formulations, bacteria remain in a dormant form, its metabolism is very slow or even halted, and in this form, they are resistant to environmental stresses, are insensitive to contamination, and are more compatible with fertilizer applications.
1). These include far longer shelf life, appropriate survival in the field, sufficient cell density, ease of manufacturing, and improved performance of plants in general (Bashan 1998; John et al. 2011; Bashan et al. 2014). So far, for agricultural and environmental uses, these polymers include alginate, agar, kappa carrageenan, pectin, chitosan, bean gum, and several proprietary polymers. 22 Y. Bashan et al. 1 A sample of polymeric formulations used for producing inoculants of plant growthpromoting bacteria for plants from 1998 to 2015 Formulation Alginate Additives or treatment None Microorganisms used Azospirillum brasilense; Azospirillum combined with Methylobacterium sp.
For the future of plant inoculation, this topic cannot be ignored. The following research topics should be top priorities of research on new or improved delivery systems for PGPB/PGPR and rhizobia, excluding peat formulations, which have already reached their peak: • In-depth evaluation of known carriers. Periodically, a new formulation, involving a known carrier, such as alginate or liquid inoculant containing a supplement, is presented as a solution to all the maladies of previous carriers. In-depth analysis of the pros and cons for each formulation is seldom investigated and, if done by the industry, is mostly unpublished.