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By Vera P. Moutafchieva

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146 Toward the end of the fifteenth century, Seres formed a part of the has of the Beylerbey of Rumelia, who also collected the revenue from the internal excise duties (baq). In 1482, this revenue w Toward the end of the fifteenth century, Seres formed a part of the has of the Beylerbey of Rumelia, who also cas isolated from the others, turned into a state mukataa, and, in 1492, was divided into three parts. The first was so as a timar, to Mehmet Pa§a Hersekzade. 148 The charges payable on entry into Edirne through two of its gates-the "new" gate and the "Constantinople" gatewere made into timars in 1480, and granted to separate persons, Me§ aleci Ali and Ekmek~i Hidir, and others.

202 The same happened with the zeamet of the suba~i of Sopot, whose successor received a very small portion of the villages included in the zeamet because they had been divided up among other sipahis. 203 The zeamet of the suba~i of Klissoura, which had remained vacant, was divided up among various timar holders. 204 As far as timar transfers during the period in question are concerned, it can be established that there were extremely frequent changes in "ownership" and that the timar land fund was in a liquid state, which cannot merely be explained by the vacating of timars because of death or dereliction of duty on the part of their holders.

The remaining decrees that determine the feudal obligations of the peasant are to be found in an appendix obviously added at a later date. From a brief glance at the law of Mehmet IT, one underlying fact immediately strikes one-namely the still-primitive, barbarian character of that legislation. Feudal relationships, which were established relatively quickly against the background of Ottoman society, mainly because of the significant degree of development of the forces of production that the Ottomans found in the conquered territories, were, in the time of Mehmet IT, insufficiently reflected in the administrative superstructure.

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