By Daniel Abou-Ras, Thomas Kirchartz, Uwe Rau
Written by way of scientists from top institutes in Germany, united states and Spain who use those ideas because the center in their clinical paintings and who've an actual inspiration of what's proper for photovoltaic units, this article comprises concise and entire lecture-like chapters on particular study methods.They concentrate on rising, really expert recommendations which are new to the sector of photovoltaics but have a confirmed relevance. even though, due to the fact that new equipment must be judged based on their implications for photovoltaic units, a transparent introductory bankruptcy describes the elemental physics of thin-film sun cells and modules, supplying a consultant to the explicit benefits which are provided via every one person method.The number of topics is a consultant cross-section of these equipment having fun with a excessive measure of visibility in fresh clinical literature. additionally, they care for particular device-related themes and comprise a range of fabric and surface/interface research tools that experience lately confirmed their relevance. eventually, simulation ideas are offered which are used for ab-initio calculations of correct semiconductors and for machine simulations in 1D and 2D.For scholars in physics, good nation physicists, fabrics scientists, PhD scholars in fabric sciences, fabrics institutes, semiconductor physicists, and people operating within the semiconductor undefined, in addition to being compatible as supplementary studying in similar classes.
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Extra info for Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar Cells
In some cases, recrystallization of the CdTe ﬁlm was observed after CdCl2 treatment . In any case, the intermixing process is decisive for the improvement of the device performance. The major challenge for reliable manufacture of efﬁcient devices is to produce a stable and ohmic back contact to the CdTe absorber with its high electron afﬁnity. Often, back contacts are made with materials that contain Cu, such as Cu2Te, ZnTe: Cu, or HgTe:Cu, enabling a relatively low contact resistance. However, Cu-diffusion in CdTe is fast and extends deeply into the absorber, thereby affecting considerably the stability of the device .
Advanced preparation sequences always include a Cu-rich stage during the growth process and end up with an In-rich overall composition in order to combine the large grains of the Cu-rich stage with the otherwise more favorable electronic properties of the In-rich composition. The ﬁrst example of this kind of procedure is the so-called Boeing or bilayer process , which starts with the deposition of Cu-rich Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and ends with an excess In rate to achieve a ﬁnal composition that is slightly In-poor.
The percentage of light kept in the solar cell by total internal reﬂection increases with the refractive index, since the critical angle qc ¼ arcsinð1=nÞ becomes smaller. For light with a Lambertian distribution of angles, the reﬂectance of the front surface for light from the inside is Ðq ð1ÀRf Þ 0 c cos q sin q dq ð1ÀRf Þ Ri ¼ 1À ð1:8Þ ¼ 1À Ð p=2 n2 cos q sin q dq 0 Here, Rf is the reﬂectance at the front side of the absorber for normal incidence. To visualize the effect, the absorption coefﬁcient and the light trapping has on the absorptance of a solar cell, we present some calculations for a model system.