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By Cai Hua

The Na of China, farmers within the Himalayan zone, reside with out the establishment of marriage. Na brothers and sisters dwell jointly their complete lives, sharing loved ones obligations and elevating the women's kids. as the Na, like any cultures, restrict incest, they perform a procedure of occasionally furtive, occasionally conspicuous night encounters on the woman's domestic. The woman's partners--she usually has greater than one--bear no financial accountability for her or her little ones, and "fathers," except they resemble their kids, stay unidentifiable.This lucid ethnographic research exhibits how a society can functionality with no husbands or fathers. It sheds mild on marriage and kinship, in addition to on the location of girls, the required stipulations for the purchase of id, and the influence of a communist nation on a society that it considers backward.

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Additional resources for A society without fathers or husbands: the Na of China

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Given these rules, a lianee in which the members of only one sex were serfs could technically become, through adoption or cohabitation, a non-serf lianee. However, I was unable to find any­ one who could give me information about whether or not this had been forbidden by the zhifu and if any attempts of this nature had occurred. In fact, it was not in the best interest of the masters for exclusively serf lianees to become half serf, and commoner lianees were reluctant to let one of their members cohabit with a serf.

The third group, the NaRu (with an approximate population of 7,000), inhabits the Muli and Yanbian Districts in Sichuan. A fourth group, the Nahing (with an approximate population of 3 ,000), lives to the south of the Ninglang District and in the village of Zhanzi­ dang in the Yongshen District in Yunnan. Originally, the Mo-so came from branches of the Qiang, an ancient population from the Tibeto-qin plateau in northwestern China. D. , the Mo-so have lived in the Yanyuan region. 3 In 7 3 8 , the Nan Zhao principality conquered the five others and thereby formed a kingdom.

Crcifts Spinning and weaving flax are tasks that every woman is capable of doing. Each household plants flax in its garden and sometimes in the fields as well. During the winter months, women spend much of their time spinning and weaving. The loom is of the most simple kind, merely a wooden frame. It takes fifty to sixty warps to make one skirt, thirty to forty to make one pair of pants, and twenty to make a sack. Some households produce a modest sur­ plus that they trade for grain, tea, salt, brown sugar, and such.

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